1月9日上午,自然资源部举行新闻发布会,发布了《自然资源部关于推进资源管理改革若干事项的意见》(下称《意见》)。其中的一项重大改革,是我国将全面开放勘查开采市场,允许民企、外资企业等社会各界资本进入油气勘探开发领域。

On the morning of 9 January, the Ministry of Natural Resources held a press conference and issued the Ministry of Natural Resources'Opinion on Several Matters to Promote Resource Management Reform (hereinafter \"The Opinion \"). One of the major reforms is that China will open up the market for exploration and exploitation in an all-round way and allow private and foreign-funded enterprises and other capitals to enter the field of oil and gas exploration and exploitation.

这是全年原油产量排名全球第八的石油大国,在其石油工业发展史上首次实现了全产业链的全面开放。至此,无论是民营企业还是外资企业,都可以在中国石油全产业链上的任意环节,实现与国有企业同样的竞争地位。

For the first time in the history of oil industry, this is the world's eighth largest oil producing country. At this point, both private and foreign-funded enterprises can achieve the same competitive position as state-owned enterprises in any link in the whole industry chain of PetroChina.

依据自然资源部,只要在中华人民共和国境内注册,净资产不低于3亿元人民币的内外资公司,均有资格按照规定取得油气矿业权;企业从事油气勘查开采应符合安全、环保等资质要求和规定,并具有相应的油气勘查开采技术能力。

According to the Ministry of Natural Resources, foreign and domestic companies with net assets of not less than 300 million RMB are eligible to obtain the right of oil and gas mining in accordance with the relevant regulations as long as they are registered in the People's Republic of China.

“这次全面放开了油气勘查和开采的市场准入,包括探矿权和采矿权,改变了过去主要由几家国有公司专营的这种局面。”自然资源部矿业权管理司司长姚华军表示。

\"The full liberalization of market access for oil and gas exploration and mining, including prospecting and mining rights, has changed the situation that used to be dominated by several state-owned companies. Yao Huajun, director of mining rights management at the Ministry of Natural Resources.

一位不愿具名的民营油气企业人士向21世纪经济报道记者表示,对于这次的改革“非常振奋”。“这是一个非常了不起的事情,我们在业内呼吁了很多年,终于能够实现和国有企业一样的‘国民待遇’。”他说。

A private oil and gas producer, who does not want to be named, told 21st-century economic reports that the reform was \"very exciting \". \"It's a remarkable thing and we've been calling for years in the industry to finally be able to achieve the same'national treatment' as state-owned enterprises. he said.

荷兰皇家壳牌则向记者回应称,在上游领域的进一步开放令人鼓舞,意味着在中国相关领域开展投资有更多的机会和选择。“壳牌非常重视与中方伙伴的合作关系,也将继续致力于将我们的先进技术和专业能力带给我们的合作伙伴和客户。”

Royal Dutch Shell, for its part, responded to reporters by saying the further opening up of the upstream sector was encouraging, meaning there were more opportunities and options for investment in related areas in China. \"Shell attaches great importance to its cooperation with its Chinese partners and will continue to work to bring our advanced technology and expertise to our partners and customers.

《意见》规定,地方自然资源主管部门协议出让矿业权须征求同级地方人民政府意见,需自然资源部协议出让的矿业权应先征求省级人民政府意见。已设采矿权深部或上部需要协议出让的探矿权采矿权除外。

The \"Opinion\" stipulates that the local departments in charge of natural resources must seek the opinions of the local people's governments at the same level on the agreement on the transfer of mining rights, and that the opinions of the provincial people's governments on the transfer of mining rights as agreed upon by the Ministry of Natural Resources shall be sought first. The exploration and mining rights that have been established in the deep or upper part of the mining rights need to be agreed upon except.

《意见》规定了竞争性出让的三种方式。以招标方式出让的,依据招标条件,综合择优确定中标人。以拍卖方式出让的,应价最高且不低于底价的竞买人为竞得人;以挂牌方式出让的,报价最高且不低于底价者为竞得人,只有一个竞买人报价且不低于底价的,挂牌成交。

The Opinion provides for three forms of competitive assignment. In the case of assignment by way of bidding, the winning bidder shall be selected according to the conditions of bidding. Bidders who sell by auction with the highest price and no less than the base price shall be the bidder; those who sell by listing with the highest price and no less than the base price shall be the bidder.

同时,继续推进油气探矿权竞争出让试点。在全国范围内探索以《意见》附件所列的出让收益市场基准价确定的价格等作为油气探矿权竞争出让起始价,开展油气探矿权竞争出让试点,探索积累实践经验,稳步推进油气勘查开采管理改革。

At the same time, we will continue to promote the pilot project of competition for oil and gas prospecting rights. We will explore nationwide the starting price for the competitive transfer of oil and gas prospecting rights with the prices set out in the benchmark market price for the proceeds of sale listed in the Annex to the Opinions, conduct pilot projects for the competitive transfer of oil and gas prospecting rights, explore the accumulation of practical experience, and steadily advance the reform in the management of oil and gas prospecting and mining.

一直以来,我国的油气勘探开发权都是以协议出让方式为绝对主流,“三桶油”对于一个区块进行初步评估之后,直接向有关部门进行登记获得权益。相比竞争性出让,这一方式并不需要在前期付出太多的费用,同时存续期较长,风险相当低。

All along, our country's oil and gas exploration and development rights are based on the agreement transfer as the absolute mainstream,\" three barrels of oil \"for a block of preliminary evaluation, directly to the relevant departments to register to obtain equity. This approach doesn't have to be costly in its early stages compared to competitive ones, with longer lifetimes and a fairly low risk.

而竞争性出让方面,则需要相对较高的门槛。以新疆自治区第二轮油气区块探矿权招标为例,申能股份以亿元竞得柯坪南区块;新疆能源(集团)以亿元竞得温宿西区块;温宿区块由中曼石油以亿元竞得。

On the competitive side, a relatively high threshold is needed. Taking the second round of bidding for prospecting rights for oil and gas blocks in xinjiang autonomous region as an example, sheneng shares competed for kopingnan block with 100 million yuan; xinjiang energy (group) competed for wynn suxi block with 100 million yuan; and warm suxi block was acquired by sinoman oil with 100 million yuan.

其中,中曼石油是一家民营企业,注册资本为4亿元,上述中标金额是其注册资本的两倍还多,足见入局门槛之高。值得一提的是,此次公开招标的仅为探矿权,探明后的采矿权并未作出相应规定。

Among them, zhongman oil is a private enterprise with a registered capital of 400 million yuan, the above winning amount is more than twice its registered capital, which shows the high entry threshold. It is worth mentioning that the public bidding only for prospecting rights, mining rights after the exploration did not make corresponding provisions.

后续的勘探开发方面,同样要求企业拥有强大的资金实力。即便石油工业发展已有百余年,在一个区块上打上数口甚至十数口探井未找到一滴石油仍是行业的普遍现象,对于资金实力雄厚的“三桶油”来说,这些资金可能无足轻重;但对于民营企业来说,就是非常大的风险。

Subsequent exploration and development also requires strong financial strength. Even if the oil industry has been growing for more than a hundred years, putting a few or even a dozen wells on a block and not finding a drop of oil is still a common phenomenon in the industry.

这种风险甚至对于外资油气巨头来说都难以承受。2018年和2019年,壳牌和BP相继退出了他们与中石油合作的、位于四川省的页岩油气区块。尽管并未披露原因,但业内人士均认为,和相关地区高昂的勘探开发成本有关。

This risk is hard to bear even for foreign oil and gas giants. In 2018 and 2019, Shell and BP successively withdrew from their shale oil and gas block, which they worked with PetroChina and is based in the Sichuan province. Although the reasons have not been disclosed, industry insiders say they are linked to the high cost of exploration and development in the region.

“竞争性出让的核心,就是风险相对后置,”一位业内人士告诉记者,“后续如果希望鼓励民营企业和外资企业入局,还是需要在降低风险和门槛方面进行一系列的制度探索。”

\"The core of the competitive transfer is the relative postposition of risk,\" an insider told reporters.\" If we want to encourage private and foreign companies to enter the bureau, we still need to explore a series of systems to reduce the risk and threshold.\"

《意见》规定,根据油气不同于非油气矿产的勘查开采技术特点,针对多年存在的问题,油气矿业权实行探采合一制度。

The \"Opinion\" stipulates that according to the characteristics of exploration and mining technology of oil and gas different from non-oil and gas minerals, the system of integration of exploration and mining rights for oil and gas mining should be implemented in view of the problems existing in many years.

油气探矿权人发现可供开采的油气资源的,在报告有登记权限的自然资源主管部门后即可进行开采。进行开采的油气矿产资源探矿权人应当在5年内签订采矿权出让合同,依法办理采矿权登记。

Where the oil and gas prospector discovers the oil and gas resources available for exploitation, the exploitation may be carried out after reporting to the competent department of natural resources with registration authority. The right holder of prospecting for oil and gas mineral resources for exploitation shall, within five years, sign a contract for the assignment of mining rights and register the mining rights according to law.

这意味着拥有探矿权的企业,同样拥有了采矿权的保障,降低了在勘探过程中所承受的风险。“下一步,改革的方向需要在采矿权方面着手,将已经确定资源量但开发技术难度较大的区块拿出来在市场上进行招拍挂。”上述业内人士向记者建议。

This means that companies with prospecting rights have the same security of mining rights that reduce the risks they incur in the exploration process. \"The next step, the direction of reform needs to be on the mining rights to determine the amount of resources but the development of more difficult technical blocks out of the market. The industry has advised reporters.

但是,一个相对悲观的事实是:中国所有的优质含油气盆地,都掌握在三桶油手里。即便《意见》顺利实施,初期拿出的区块的资源吸引力也相对有限,若要进一步激活市场潜力,存量区块的改革势在必行。

But a relatively pessimistic fact is that all of China's high-quality oil and gas basins are in the hands of three barrels of oil. Even if the Opinion is successfully implemented, the resource appeal of the initial block is relatively limited, and the reform of the stock block is imperative if the market potential is to be further activated.

据悉,在三桶油内部存在着部分已经明确,但是因种种原因难以动用的区块,对于这类区块,以中石油为例,已经开始进行了内部的矿权流转,让一些已经到开发末期的油田公司接手,但因为这类资源量并不在少数,目前的开发进度并不快。

It is reported that there are some clear inside the three barrels of oil, but for a variety of reasons difficult to use the block, for which, for example, PetroChina, has begun to carry out internal mineral rights flow, let some oil companies have reached the end of the development, but because the amount of such resources is not in a small number, the current development progress is not fast.

“这一部分储量,对于中石油和中石化来说是累赘,对于国家来说则是一种浪费,拿出来吸引民营、外企和社会资本进入,则有利于对这部分资源的动用,在越来越动荡的国际能源市场中,保障中国的能源供给安全。”上述业内人士说。

\"This part of the reserves is cumbersome for PetroChina and Sinopec, and a waste for the state, to attract private, foreign and social capital, is conducive to the use of this part of the resources, in the increasingly volatile international energy market to ensure the security of China's energy supply. The industry said.

而在制度设计方面,改革传统的“三级储量”统计模式,采用国际惯例的SPE-PRMS储量统计模式,推动储量计算采用更加科学合理方式,同样有利于激活中国的大量区块。

And in the aspect of system design, reforming the traditional \"tertiary reserve\" statistical model and adopting the SPE-PRMS reserve statistics model of international practice to promote the more scientific and reasonable way of reserve calculation is also beneficial to activate a large number of blocks in China.

以后者为例,是美国石油工程学会建立、在目前的主流产油国广泛采用、已经拥有了非常成熟的应用方式,其最大的好处是可以推动储量的金融化,吸引银行、信托甚至证券资金进入到油气市场。

The latter, for example, is founded by the american petroleum engineering institute, widely adopted in the current mainstream oil producing countries, and already has a very mature application, the biggest benefit of which is that it can promote the financialization of reserves and attract banks, trusts and even securities funds into the oil and gas market.

这也是美国页岩油革命得以成功的重要经验,储量贷款、证券化的基础则是上述统计体系,才使得大量成本低廉的资金进入到油气行业,极大刺激了这一行业的公司数量,激活了整个美国的油气勘探开发。

This is also an important experience for the success of the u.s. shale-oil revolution, based on a statistical system based on reserve loans and securitisation, which allowed a lot of cheap money to enter the oil and gas industry, greatly stimulating the number of companies in the industry and activating oil and gas exploration and development throughout the u.s.

“目前,民营和外资企业手里拥有的仅是合作开发的权益,所有权都在三桶油手里,在中国的金融市场中无法撬动任何资本,”上述民营企业人士向记者表示,“储量计算方式更加科学,可以吸引更多的资本进入到这一行业,促进行业的繁荣。”

\"At the moment, the private and foreign companies have only the rights to co-develop, the ownership of which is in the hands of three barrels of oil, and cannot leverage any capital in China's financial markets,\" the private sector told reporters.


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