美国总统特朗普8日针对伊朗袭击美军驻伊拉克基地发表全国讲话,他提到:“我们实现了能源独立,美国不再需要中东石油。”此番言论引发热议。专家称,美国现在是世界上最大的石油生产国,实现了“石油独立”。但也有美媒指出,事实上美国炼油厂仍在使用中东地区生产的石油。

"We have achieved energy independence and the United States no longer needs oil from the Middle East," US President Donald Trump said in a national address on the Iranian attack on U.S. military bases in Iraq on Tuesday. The comments sparked a heated debate. Experts say the United States is now the world's largest oil producer, achieving "oil independence.” But some U. S. media say U. S. refineries are still using oil from the Middle East.

  国际能源署发布的报告显示,去年6月美国一度超越沙特,成为全球最大原油出口国。根据美国能源信息局的数据,去年9月美国单月原油和石油制品出口量大于进口量。这是美国自1949年开始汇总石油进出口数字以来,首次成为石油净出口国。

Last June, the United States surpassed Saudi Arabia as the world's largest exporter of crude oil, according to a report released by the International Energy Agency. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. exports of crude oil and petroleum products exceeded imports in September last year. This is the first time the United States has become a net exporter of oil since it began compiling oil import and export figures in 1949.

  据CNN报道,自2015年以来,页岩油的大量开发扭转了美国对国外石油的依赖。自2011年以来,该国石油产量已经翻了一番,达到每天1300万桶,出口量达到每天300万桶。

The massive development of shale oil since 2015 has reversed America's dependence on foreign oil, according to CNN. The country's oil production has doubled since 2011 to 13 million barrels per day and exports to 3 million barrels per day.

  不过彭博社报道指出,美国目前仍然依赖于中东石油,尤其是沙特。加拿大皇家银行资本市场商品策略全球主管赫丽玛·克罗夫特表示,美国产品改变了游戏规则,“但是如果我们认为在中东地区遭遇大规模、长时间的石油断供也毫无影响,那是不准确的,因为页岩油不是超人,它无法应对石油短缺的危机,只有沙特具备实力来解决问题。”

But bloomberg reports that the united states still relies on oil from the middle east, especially saudi arabia. U.S. products have changed the rules of the game, says Herima Croft, head of global strategy for capital market commodities at Royal Bank of Canada.\" But if we believe that a massive, prolonged oil outage in the Middle East has no impact, it is inaccurate, because shale oil is not superhuman, it cannot cope with the oil shortage crisis, only Saudis have the power to solve the problem.

  中海油能源经济研究院原首席能源研究员、东帆石能源咨询有限公司董事长陈卫东表示,特朗普的说法是符合实际情况的。美国的“非常规油气革命”大大提高了美国本土的石油产量,基本实现了“能源独立”。美国现在从中东,主要是从沙特进口石油,已经不是纯粹的石油需求问题。沙特是美国在中东坚定的盟友,也是欧佩克的核心,美国不仅需要沙特来平衡复杂的中东地缘政治格局,还需要沙特来平衡石油供需关系。美国从中东进口石油已经从原油供给保障为主逐步转向地缘政治考量并重的格局。

Chen Weidong, former chief energy researcher at the CNOOC Energy Economics Research Institute and chairman of Dongfanshi Energy Consulting Co., said Trump's claim was in line with the actual situation. The \"unconventional oil and gas revolution\" in the United States has greatly increased oil production in the United States and basically achieved \"energy independence \". America's import of oil from the Middle East, mainly from Saudi Arabia, is no longer a purely oil-demand issue. Saudi Arabia is a staunch ally of the United States in the Middle East and at the heart of OPEC, and the United States needs not only Saudi Arabia to balance the complex geopolitical landscape in the Middle East, but also Saudi Arabia to balance oil supply and demand. America's import of oil from the Middle East has shifted gradually from a predominantly oil-supply guarantee to a geopolitical balance.

  自尼克松以来的历届美国总统,无不将追求能源独立作为其能源政策的最重要目标。在上任的第二天,特朗普就发布“美国第一能源计划”,核心包括将进一步放宽能源监管政策、大力发展美国本土的页岩油气、让美国的煤炭工业重生等。

Since Nixon, all successive US presidents have made the pursuit of energy independence the most important goal of their energy policies. On his second day in office, Mr. Trump released the \"U.S. First Energy Plan,\" at the heart of which will include further liberalization of energy regulations, aggressive development of shale oil and gas in the U.S., and a rebirth of the U.S. coal industry.

  据福布斯新闻报道,政府对油气监管措施的放松,促进了美国国内油气管网的建设。更重要的是,“非常规油气革命”大幅降低成本、扩大产量,使美国在原油市场的话语权不断增强。

According to Forbes News, the government's relaxation of oil and gas regulation has promoted the construction of domestic oil and gas networks in the United States. More importantly, the \"unconventional oil and gas revolution \"has dramatically reduced costs and expanded production, giving the US a growing voice in the oil market.

  陈卫东指出,美国实现了“能源独立”,也就是政治外交决策不受石油供给的影响。从表面上看,“非常规油气革命”推动美国成为第一大天然气生产和消费国,石油产量也在大幅增长。推动“非常规油气革命”的主要内在因素有两个,一是技术进步,二是中国石油需求的增长推高了价格。技术创新和石油价格快速增长共同推动了美国“非常规油气革命”的实现。换句话说,是美国因素和中国因素共同推动了美国的“非常规油气革命”。

Chen Weidong pointed out that the United States has achieved \"energy independence \", that is, political and diplomatic decisions are not affected by the supply of oil. On the surface, the \"unconventional oil and gas revolution \"pushed the United States to become the first country to produce and consume natural gas, and oil production is also growing substantially. There are two main internal factors driving the \"unconventional oil and gas revolution \", one is technological progress, the other is that the growth of China's oil demand has pushed up prices. Technological innovation and the rapid growth of oil prices have jointly promoted the realization of the \"unconventional oil and gas revolution\" in the United States. In other words, it is the american and chinese factors that have combined to fuel america's \"unconventional oil and gas revolution \".

  “美国是最大的石油消费国,美国选民不喜欢不能控制油价快速增长的政府,特朗普很清楚这一点。”陈卫东说,1973年中东石油禁运使美国不堪其苦,所以尼克松提出“能源独立”政策,近50年来美国扭转了能源对外依赖的局面。现在对美国GDP贡献最大的是服务产业,增长最快市值最高的是“智能资本”企业,石油行业已经不再是美国的经济支柱。

“The United States is the largest oil consumer, and U.S. voters don't like a government that can't control the rapid growth of oil prices, and Trump knows that. Mr. Chen said the 1973 oil embargo on the Middle East made America miserable, so Mr. Nixon's policy of "energy independence" reversed the country's dependence on energy for nearly 50 years. The service sector is now the biggest contributor to US GDP, and the fastest-growing is "smart capital "companies, with the oil sector no longer the backbone of the US economy.

  伊朗拥有世界第四大原油储备,其经济增长和政府收入在很大程度上依赖于原油销售。去年5月,美国宣布中止对任何国家和地区进口伊朗石油给予制裁豁免,加大了对伊朗极限施压的力度。在1月8日的讲话中,特朗普再次提出对伊朗实施新的经济制裁。

Iran has the world's fourth-largest reserve of crude oil, and its economic growth and government revenue are heavily dependent on crude oil sales. Last may, the u.s. announced a suspension of sanctions exemptions for any country or region that imported iran's oil, intensifying pressure on iran's limits. In his speech on January 8, Trump again proposed new economic sanctions against Iran.

  伊朗的石油和天然气部门受到美国制裁的严峻考验。据美媒CNBC报道,石油出口下降,加之银行、矿业等其他行业受到制裁,伊朗与其他国家和地区的贸易总额不断萎缩。国际货币基金组织预计,2020年伊朗出口可能低于其进口。

Iran's oil and gas sector has been severely tested by U.S. sanctions. Oil exports fell and Iran's trade with other countries and regions shrank as other industries, such as banks and mining, were sanctioned, CNBC reported. The IMF expects Iran to export less than it imports in 2020.

  路透社报道称,去年5月伊朗原油出口量降至每天约40万桶,伊朗石油部长赞加内表示这一数据“纯属谎言”,并拒绝透露伊朗的原油出口量。伊朗石油部一名消息人士称,伊朗的石油出口不会为零,国家已经改变了出口的战略和方向,并调动一切资源在灰色市场销售石油。

Iranian oil exports fell to about 400,000 barrels a day in May, according to Reuters, and Iranian oil minister David Zangane said the figures were \"pure lies\" and declined to say how much Iranian crude oil was exported. A source at Iran's oil ministry said the country's oil exports would not be zero, and the country had changed its export strategy and direction and mobilized all its resources to sell oil in the grey market.

  据伊朗国家电视台报道,赞加内1月8日表示,美国制裁伊朗石油行业,除了作为对伊朗施加经济压力的一种手段之外,还有一个目的——将美国页岩油向世界石油市场开放。

In addition to serving as a means of exerting economic pressure on Iran, U.S. sanctions against Iran's oil industry have a purpose - opening U.S. shale oil to world oil markets, he said on Jan.

  伊朗伊斯兰革命卫队8日凌晨向驻伊拉克美军基地发射了数十枚导弹。消息传出后,国际油价快速上涨,布伦特原油期货价格攀升逾5%,达到每桶美元。随后,特朗普在白宫发表讲话,改变了对伊朗连日来的愤怒言辞,表示美国不会动用军队,“准备好拥抱和平”。

Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps fired dozens of missiles at a U.S. military base in Iraq in the early hours of the morning of 8. The news came as international oil prices surged and Brent crude futures climbed more than 5 per cent to the dollar per barrel. Trump then addressed the White House to change angry rhetoric about Iran's recent past, saying the United States would not use its military and \"be ready to embrace peace.\"

  据路透社报道,特朗普的最新表态缓和了投资者对美国与伊朗军事冲突继续升级的担忧,国际油价8日大幅回落,而更多压力来自美国原油库存的意外增加。美国能源信息局8日表示,上周美国原油库存意外增加,汽油库存创下四年来最大单周增幅。阿联酋能源部长马兹鲁伊8日表示,尽管海湾地区局势趋紧,但目前原油供应仍维持正常。如果美国和伊朗冲突加剧,导致本地区原油供应受到影响,欧佩克有能力填补供应缺口。

Trump's latest statement tempered investors'concerns that the U.S.-Iranian military conflict continued to escalate, with international oil prices plunging on Aug. U.S. crude stocks rose unexpectedly last week, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said on Sunday, with gasoline stocks posting their biggest weekly increase in four years. UAE Energy Minister Mazloui said 8, despite the tightening situation in the Gulf, but the current supply of crude oil remains normal. If the U.S.-Iranian conflict intensifies and oil supplies in the region are affected, OPEC will be able to fill the supply gap.

  《金融时报》分析,中东危局将改变世界格局,拖累增长动力不足的世界经济。为刺激经济,多国央行可能扩大降息降准。地缘政治牵动国际金融市场震荡。

The 《 Financial Times analyses that the crisis in the Middle East will change the world landscape and drag down a world economy that is under-powered. To stimulate the economy, the central bank is likely to cut interest rates further. Geopolitical influence international financial market shock.


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